Abstract. A detailed study of AISI and stainless steels (SSs) has been conducted to correlate the degree of sensitization (DOS) measured by the. ASTM a Test, Intergranular Corrosion, IGC, ASTM A Practice, Copper – Copper Sulfate – 16% sulfuric acid, ASTM A – Practice E (Strauss Test). ASTM A Practice E test. This practice describes the procedure by which the copper-copper sulfate% sulfuric acid test is conducted to determine .

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Like what you saw? Intergranular corrosion occurs as a result of precipitation of nitrides pracgice, carbidesand other intermetallic phasessuch as sigma phase, that occurs along the grain boundaries.

A bend test followed by a visual or micro-examination are used to determine “Pass” or “Fail” of test specimens. The level of corrosion is determined by mass loss. Discover perspectives, resources, and advice from our world-leading Engaged Experts.

Intergranular Corrosion Testing: An Overview of ASTM A262

Our Corrosion Test services and capabilities are as follows: View more articles about Aerospace Oil and Gas Transportation. For example, many low-carbon ee stabilized stainless steels e. It is not sensitive to size or orientation, provided that edge attack is not ignored. Practice B, also known as the Streicher test, uses weight loss analysis to provide a quantitative measure of d materials performance. However, when a material is ;ractice to high temperatures for long periods of time, a process called sensitization may occur.

This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. The Copper Sulfate Test is especially effective for determining susceptibility to intergranular attack for low carbon steels. Learn more about our asttm – where they are located; the unique capabilities they have and how they can help you solve your technical and commercial challenges.

For example, in highly oxidizing solutions, intergranular attack can occur due to intermetallic phases, while attack of carbides may occur somewhat less oxidizing solutions. G2MT Labs is one of the few labs to offer all five ASTM A corrosion testing practices, as well as the expertise to help you determine which tests to use, what to do if a test fails, and other corrosion consulting as needed. Strauss test specimens are boiled ;ractice a Copper Sulfate – Sulfuric Acid mixture for 15 hours.


The Oxalic Acid test is only used to ensure that no corrosion exists; samples are labeled either “Acceptable” or “Suspect”. Sensitization causes the grain boundaries of a material to precipitate, creating carbide deposits z262 causing the material to be susceptible to intergranular attack. Specimen surface before soaking in boiling Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid solution.

ASTM A Testing: An Overview of Intergranular Corrosion | Element

ASTM A is a common intergranular corrosion testing method that can quickly screen batches of material to determine corrosion susceptibility. Duplicate samples from both sides of a sheet sample are evaluated to determine if carburization results in intergranular attack. Our knowledgeable scientists have the experience and expertise necessary to determine the most appropriate intergranular attack testing methods for your material while providing actionable results you can rely on.

Practice E, the Strauss test, is performed to assess attack associated with chromium-rich carbide formation; it does not detect susceptibility to sigma phase formation. See Appendix X1 for information regarding test selection.

ASTM A Intergranular Corrosion Testing and Analysis

Examination of intergranular cracks and fissures on bend surface. Edges shall be rounded and a fine final polish is required at all surface exclude the weld cap and root area.

These practices include five intergranular corrosion tests, namely: The ASTM A tests can determine if the proper heat treatment was performed or if the alloys are in danger of intergranular corrosion occurring in use.

Intergranular corrosion shows up as the dark black lines around the grain boundaries. A different ASTM A test method must be used to quantify the level of corrosion or to disqualify a material for use. Please share this page: These test methods determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steel and nickel-base, chromium bearing alloys. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

Corrosion Tests are conducted to determine the resistance of a metal to chemical attack.


The Strauss test is commonly used to evaluate the heat-treatment of as-received material, the effectiveness of alloying additions of elements such as Nb and Ti, or the effectiveness of reducing carbon content to resist intergranular attack. The samples are weighed at each interval to determine mass loss and degree of susceptibility to intergranular attack.

Sample condition before soaking in Ferric chloride solution. We provide intergranular corrosion evaluation, salt spray testing, stress corrosion, and various other methods to simulate exposure pracfice your products or materials to corrosive environments.

Intergranular cracking or crazing is evidence of susceptibility. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Based on your materials, application, and requirements, the other 4 methods provide specific focuses. The first and fastest step w262 the ASTM A Practice A, a rapid same-day screening method in Oxalic acid to determine the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion.

This practice includes boiling the sample for 24 to hours in the solution above, and measures the materials performance quantitatively.

Classification of the structure after A Practice A analysis will determine if the material is acceptable or if additional testing is required. All five methods within this specification involve exposing prwctice to a chemical mixture designed to a26 corrosive behavior.

Choosing an Intergranular Corrosion Test Method Since high temperature processing such as heat treatment is a common practice, many manufacturers wish to perform intergranular corrosion qualification testing on each batch, to ensure that the material has been processed correctly and does not show signs of corrosion susceptibility. Please refer to the specification for more details.

Practice F, is a hour weight-loss based analysis that provides a quantitative measure of the materials performance, and is commonly used to analyze as-received stainless steels.

Ditch structure sensitization was observed in test sample after etched under high optical microscope.

The bent samples are examined at low magnification, where the appearance of cracks or fissures indicate intergranular attack.