Abstract. A 3-yr study was conducted in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley to determine the overwintering survival of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis. The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) is found only in subtropical and tropical areas of America. Its host range is limited to maize and its . The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is one of the most important pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae), in Latin.
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Plates were coated overnight, and samples were prepared and applied the next day. Commercially planted corn in grower fields was also examined for the presence of leafhoppers and tested for the occurrence of the spiroplasma. Leafhoppers captured on the sticky cards and those collected in D-vac samples were examined for the presence of S. C Casela, R Renfro, A. Chemical Control Due to the variable dalbilus around de- registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations.
maize leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis)
Thus, the period of time when corn is not available may be as little as 2 mo. At this point, we suspected that D.
The report by Kloepper et al. These volunteers can serve as an early host for leafhoppers who become infective after feeding. This observation suggested to us that the leafhopper was overwintering in the area rather than migrating here from Mexico.
Continuing to use www. Although plants with MBSP-like symptoms have been observed, recent attempts to recover this pathogen have been unsuccessful C. Overwintering leafhoppers easily acquire the spiroplasma in the spring and transmit it to newly planted corn. Purcell concluded that regular spring migrations from Mexico might explain the reappearance of D. Spiroplasma kunkelii new-species characterization of the maidiss agent of corn stunt disease.
The corn leafhopper has only rarely been reported as a direct pest of maize, causing feeding damage and decline of the host by the removal of plant sap. Because there are no overwintering hosts for D.
Primers used for the specific identification of S. We have no evidence that any of these plants serve as feeding hosts for the leafhopper. Close Find out naidis. Double-sided yellow sticky cards, 7.
Add to maivis the presence of volunteers for an additional mo, and corn becomes almost a year-round crop. It is not known whether the shortened corn-free period contributed to increased winter survival or if it is simply a case of numbers, i. Percentage of overwintering a male and female D.
Infected leafhoppers were recovered throughout the winter and spring in all 3 yr. Leafhoppers appeared earlier each year, and bythey commonly were found in March and April. The common denominator between the two areas is the lack of corn for some period of time. At dalbulys one, if not all three, of these pathogens have been reported present wherever the corn leafhopper is found.
Crop rotations required new trapping locations in Fig. The reason for the change in leafhopper dynamics, from the cyclic pest observed from the s to the s to its current maicis pest status, is not fully understood. However, collections beginning in early March were similar to those of previous years. Cicadulina mbila Naude – maize leafhopper.
Adult leafhoppers were captured on yellow sticky cards throughout the winter in all 3 yr Fig. Cicadellidae infestation and achaparramiento disease. During the s, there was a substantial migration of the dairy industry from southern California to the southern SJV, especially Tulare and Kings counties.
In the early season, the PCR product of the reaction was used in a second reaction, and distinct bands were observed. During warm winters such asthe spiroplasma is capable of surviving the winter in volunteer plants that do not completely freeze.
The pathogens multiply in the vector and undergo a latent period; after the corn leafhopper acquires the pathogen by feeding on an infected plant, a period of 2 weeks for MRFV, and weeks for CSS and MBSP, must pass before vectors kaidis inoculative. Areas suspected of harboring leafhoppers, including weedy fields, ditch and fence lines, alfalfa Medicago sativa L.
As such, successful overwintering of infected leafhoppers results in the successful overwintering of the pathogen. These plants were not specified as feeding hosts, and their role in the overwintering of D. Collar for assistance in conducting various aspects of the field studies. There was a general trend for an increased percentage of males surviving the winter over maidks 3 yr.