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The character of the sound is influenced by two factors; the Q of the filter, which may be varied by changing the value of R2, and the duration of the trigger pulse, which may be adjusted using PI. However this unusual circuit util- ises a single transistor operated in common-base configuration, and does not invert the input sig- nals. This has the advantage that, unlike chargers in which cells are connected in series, cells in any state of discharge may be placed on the charger and each will be individually charged to the correct level.

N1 to N3 and associated components form an astable multivibrator, which docks counter IC3. Figures la and lb show the basic circuits for voltage and current measurement respectively.

A simple RC network with a break frequency of roughly 5 kHz should do the e,ektor. Thus in order to reverse the polarity of the servo one simply arranges for the control pulses to be sub- tracted from a reference pulse of 3 ms. The divided down output is available at pin 1 of the IC.

Elektor – 301 Circuits

U, not V The international letter sym- elektkr ‘U ‘ for voltage is often used instead of the ambiguous ‘V’. However, the bottom end of R4 is returned to the output of IC1and as the voltage across Cl rises so does the output volt- age and hence the charging voltage applied to ous output pulses.


By terminating the input and out- put with a 1 k resistor in parallel with an IS p trimmer capacitor, passband ripple can be tuned down to 2 dB. The circuit diagram of the servo polarity changer. P2 is then ad- justed until clock noise is at a minimum. Of course, this facility should only be regarded as a backup to an alarm that prevents a thief entering the car in the first place! Each channel of the circuit consists epektor a pair of emitter followers in cascade, with high pass fil- ters comprising R3 to R7 and C3 to C5 that al- low crosstalk to occur between the two channels above about 8 kHz when switch SI is closed.

When power is applied, the relay will pull in.

Elektor – Circuits

The non-inverting input of A4 receives a positive bias slightly higher than half supply voltage from the junction of RJ and Dl. RCA Application Notes Monitor switching for two tape decks Although modern 30 amplifiers frequently sport an eleektor of wlektor The circuit consumes very little current 0.

This is fed through the rectifier A3 to appear on capacitor C6 and hence at the inverting input of comparator A4. Furthermore, the duty-cycle of the output signal will be independent of the in- put frequency: With the component values given in the diagram the circuit consumes mA with a 5 V stabil- ised supply.

Should the authentic poltergeist then fail to put in an ap- pearance, the ambitions ghost-hunter can ensure success by virtue of his electronic stand-in.

Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

The sawtooth output signal which is buffered by FET T4 has a peak-to-peak value of approx. The pulse is shifted along the time axis, but this has no effect upon the operation of the servo. Photo 3 shows the effect of poor highfrequency response due to in- correct adjustment of the compensation trim- mers in the Y attenuator.


If the trans- mission is mono then no signal will be fed through the selective amplifier and the compara- tor output will remain eoektor, switching off the stereo decoder. The IC can be a general purpose op-amp such as a3 orElektpr compensation capacitor C2 is not required if a is used since this IC is internally compensated.

Elektor – 301 Circuits.pdf

N2 is connected in parallel with N1 to increase the fan- out of the circuit. This is driven from an identical astable to that in figure 1b, While the output of Nl is low and Cl is charg- ing, the output of N2 is high and C2 is discharg- ing into C3, and vice versa.

Unfortunately, some manufac- turers merely print an indecipherable code, which has to be elektro up in the relevant data book in order to find the zener parameters. With no current through the shunt, PI is used to set the output voitage of A1 to nominally 6 J V, so that the circuit is just on the point of switching over from D4 to D5. Moving coil meters are also fairly delicate mechanically.

The triac must also be able to withstand the peak mains voltage i. HF current gain tester.

For example, the type number of the zener family is often printed, together with the zener voltage, so a BZY88 6V8 would be a 6,8 Elsktor zener from the BZY88 family. The power supply does not need to be regulated, so it can be kept very simple.