Taxonomic Notes: Hordeum marinum Huds. is a tertiary wild relative of Barley, H. vulgare L. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program ). Differs from Hordeum leporinum and Hordeum glaucum in that the junction of the with line drawing: Background and Aims Hordeum marinum. is a species complex that includes the diploid subspecies marinum and both diploid and tetraploid.
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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. It may also be that related forms of the diploid accessions analysed were parentals and underwent significant genomic and chromosomal changes during the generations coming soon after polyploidization. Phylogeny of two tetraploid Hordeum species, H.
Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum Calflora
Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Horreum spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. Phylogenetic relationships within H. Slides were examined using a Zeiss Axiophot epifluorescence microscope.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Chromosome identification and karyotype analysis of two diploid accessions of gussoneanum BCC and GRA was performed by combining the physical patterns obtained with the same probes used to characterize marinum Fig. Evolutionary Trends in Plants.
E Karyotypes with chromosomes arranged in two sets of 14 chromosomes subgenomes. However, several SSRs were found to provide useful diagnostic probes for chromosomal identification. AAG 5which produced the clearest pattern of signals, was chosen as the diagnostic probe for identifying chromosomes and for analysing the physical mapping of hordejm set of probes in multiple-target in situ experiments Fig.
Clonality – primary Little or no vegetative spread.
However, the most submetacentric chromosome pair of gussoneanum also carried an interstitial site on the long arm Fig. An autopolyploid origin is supported by a number of cytogenetic studies, including the analysis of C-banded karyotypes and the meiotic behaviour of hybrids Bothmer et al.
Indeed, on the basis of molecular evidence, different authors have suggested the existence of two geographically separated marinum forms: The new locus present on the long arm of chromosome 7 in gussoneanum may have been acquired after the separation of this subspecies.
The physical map of AAG 5 produced the clearest distribution pattern of diagnostic signals, allowing the identification of the seven chromosome pairs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization polymorphism using two repetitive DNA clones in different cultivars of wheat.
This suggests that this sequence is more predisposed to being amplified or deleted as a consequence of independent events in different lineages.
As in the diploid taxa, no signal was observed with AG Origin of polyploids in H. The easy identification of the seven chromosome pairs with probe AAG 5 allowed chromosome-by-chromosome analysis of the hybridization patterns of the remaining probes in multiple-target in situ experiments. The overall resemblance of the two subgenomes present in accession BCC, different from any other Hordeum genomes de Bustos et al. This agrees with the high genetic variability of the DNA sequences revealed within marinum.
The chromosomal distribution revealed by pAs1 was coincident with that seen for diploid Marium. Another problem with the complex is the taxonomic status of the different cytological forms of gussoneanum.
Genome remodelling in three modern S. If diploid gussoneanum and marinum were involved in the origin of tetraploid gussoneanumtheir chromosomes should be present in the latter. Open in a separate window. A practical application of the present findings is the detection of individual H.
In msrinum, the second genome remains unknown, although the physical map of the sequences here investigated suggests the donor of the non- gussoneanum genome was a form closer to marinum than to gussoneanum.
However, in the tetraploids, which have more chromosomes of similar morphology and in situ pattern, it was very hard to hoordeum individual chromosomes Fig. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Two 5SrDNA loci were located, one on the satellite of the satellitized chromosomes and one distal on the long arm of the smallest metacentric chromosome pair; i.
The localization of the signals relative to the DAPI hogdeum pattern was resolved by merging images using Adobe Photoshop, employing only those functions that applied marinim to all pixels.
The other pair of 5SrDNA signals was detected in a distal position on the long arm of the smaller and very metacentric chromosome pair. Count of 10km squares in Ireland: An annual of barish places by the sea, on the trampled margins of dried-up pools and ditches in grazing marshes, on tracks and sea walls, and in the uppermost parts of saltmarshes; also, very locally, beside salt-treated roads inland.
The tetraploid forms of gussoneanum appear to have come about hrdeum a cross between a diploid gussoneanum progenitor and a second, related—but unidentified—diploid ancestor. Journal List Ann Bot v.
This is probably the result of the loss of coastal grazing marsh, filling-in of pools and small ditches, and the strengthening and upgrading of sea defences. Abstract Background and Aims Hordeum marinum is karinum species complex that includes the diploid subspecies marinum and both diploid and tetraploid forms of gussoneanum. The diploid forms of gussoneanum would be the maternal donor, as suggested by molecular phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA Petersen and Seberg, ; Jakob et al.
An effort marinuum made to identify homologous chromosomes for the two diploid taxa.
Multiple intercontinental dispersals mqrinum the distribution area of Hordeum Poaceae New Phytologist. Journal of Experimental Botany. Some studies suggest marinum to have been this second progenitor Kakeda et al.