A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like….

The potential form is also occasionally used to express a wish. The earliest known document is a royal inscription dated shortly before BC though Hurrian words and names appear in earlier documentsand the last known texts date from the late fourteenth century BC.

However, this form is only attested in Mitanni and only in the third person. The following table gives an overview of the numeral system:. In the following century, attacks by the Sea Peoples brought a swift end to the last vestiges of the Hurrian language.

In the texts of these languages, as well as those of Akkadian or Urartian, many Hurrian names and places can be grammad. The direct object and intransitive subject, when they are not represented by an independent noun, are expressed through the use of clitics, or gammar see below.

Igor Diakonoff cites the suffix as -ido-but also located it before the slot of the transitivity vowel -o- — an interpretation which is also justified by the place of the corresponding suffix in the related Urartian language.


The marker -t- in position 4 may indicate intransitivity in non-present tenses. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not grammwr able to accommodate all contributions.

Another case, the so-called ‘e-case’, is very rare, and carries a genitive or allative meaning. It is -a when the verb is intransitive, -i when the verb is in the antipassive and -o in the Mitanni letter, -i in transitive verbs. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The second nominalised participle, the perfect participle, is formed with the ending -aureand gram,ar only attested once, in Nuzi: In the Caucasus region that centres on Lake Van, Hurrian of the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce was replaced by the related Urartian language in the hurriah millennium.

The following tables give examples of verb forms in various syntactic environments, largely from the Mitanni letter:.

There was also a Hurrian-Akkadian creole, called Nuzispoken in the Mitanni provincial hurdian of Arrapha. The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian.

Hurrian language

Hurrian grammar and vocabulary are imperfectly understood, though it was clearly an agglutinative language, meaning that words are built up from a sequence of units each expressing a well-defined grammatical meaning.

Infinitive forms of the verb in Hurrian include both nominalised verbs participles and a more conventional infinitive.

Please try again later. The language was widely spoken in what is now northern Syria, northern Iraq, and southeast Turkey, and by the end of the sixteenth century BC, the kings of Mittani had united most Hurrian cities under their control.


For example case markers more than one may be grammaar to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb.

The language is also strongly ergative.

Glottolog – Hurrian

The Hurrian of the Mitanni letter differs significantly from that used in the texts at Hattusha and other Hittite centres, as well as from earlier Hurrian texts from various locations. A grammar of the Hurrian language.

The Mitanni introduced some linguistic terms of Indo-Aryan origin, dealing for example with horse training, and gods from the Vedic Indian pantheon, but the language remained Hurrian. Retrieved 2 December The temporal adverbs are henni nowkuru again and unto then. Between the suffix of the dependent noun and the case ending comes the article, which agrees with the referent in number, for example, with an adjective:. The long geminate consonants occur only between vowels.

Both forms are free interchangeable. Transitive hurran forms are formed with -illet and -alletwhich are suffixed to the normal endings of the transitive indicative forms. The Hurrian possessive pronouns cannot occur independently, but are only enclitic.

This is where most Hurrian texts have been found, far removed from their origin. The anaphoric marker 7 is formally identical to the article and anchors the Suffixaufnahme suffixes 8 and 9.