This study attempts to give as complete as possible a description of two extinct Saivite sects-the Kapalikas and the Kalamukhas. Since the connotations of the. Kapalika and Kalamukha, members of either of two groups of Shaivite (devotees of Shiva) ascetics, most prominent in India from the 8th through the 13th century. Kapalikas, Kalamukhas. Identifier TheKapalikasAndKalamukhasTwoLostSaiviteSectsDLorenzenDelhi Identifier-ark ark://t23b9rp

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Both are known as mudrds. Another important centre was probably Shriparvata modern Nagarjunikonda in Andhra Pradesh. To a large extent kaplikas paths of propitiation and imitation overlap.

The Kapalikas and Kalamukhas. Two Lost Saivite Sects. | David N Lorenzen –

The number of statues in northern India declines and the name LakuliSa suddenly appears in a large number of Kannada epigraphs.

Each of these religious groups engaged in unconventional sexual rituals, which may be connected to Tantra.

This king was also the patron of Rajakkhara. When the Ksapanaka fiercely repudiates this grim dharma, Soma- siddhanta castigates him in return act III, vs.

Did the Kapalikas invent the myth in order to provide a divine model for their ascetic obser- vance, or did they model the observance on the myth?

Another priest second in descent from Kedarasakti was Somesvara- pandita-deva. Karmarkar, The Vrdtya or Dravidian Systems, p. The Kalamukha were a medieval Shaivite sect of the Deccan Plateau who were among the first professional monks of India. The Kalamukhas were closely tied with the Pasupatasone of the oldest Shaivite schools, and shared many of their traditions.


Several other persons have contributed suggestions, criticisms and linguistic assistance.

Thus Kulanjava- tantra viii. These ascetics lived in the forest, wore loincloths or animal skins, carried a khatvanga and a skull bowl, obtained their food by begging, and polluted those with whom they came into contact.

If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. That night he kapallkas pujd, offered rice boiled in milk, and scattered food offerings in the four quarters. The idea of contact with Kapalikas causing pollution recurs in several sources. Sakti, Bharadvaja and Apastamba kapalikss famous sages and Dhanada is the god of wealth.

The Kapalikas And Kalamukhas Two Lost Saivite Sects D Lorenzen Delhi 1991

A great flood of blood streams out and spreads over fifty yojanas. Although nearly all of the ka,amukhas for the Kipalikas are fictional and written from a hostile point of view, the overall picture they give is detailed enough and consistent enough to ensure that it is reasonably authentic.

The Sanskrit of this and the following passage is particularly barbaric, and some of the rendering is quite free. Mantragupta rushed forth, seized the sword, and decapitated the magician instead.

Kapalika and Kalamukha – New World Encyclopedia

The axes I have to grind do not include the wilful denigration of things Indian, and I have tried at all times simply to draw the most reasonable conclusion the evidence afforded.


This name is also i’ound in M. The former division seems to have been limited mostly to the Dharwar and Shimoga Districts of Mysore. I view the world as alternately or mutually separate and not separate from God Isvara through eyes that are made clear by the ointment of Yoga. This page was last edited on 4 Januaryat A man becomes a great ascetic yati by undertaking the Kapala vow. The Kapalikas seem to be either religious mercenaries or simply battlefield scavengers.

Rules for this penance are given in the Visnu-smrti and command the: Any text you add should andd original, not copied from other sources. We are not certain what the pills and ointment gutikdHjana are supposed to accomplish. The archetypal basis of the ritual is delineated most succinctly in the traditional etymology for the term Somasiddhanta— kwpalikas doctrine of Soma Siva united with Uma Umayd sahitah Somas tasya siddhdntah The human participants of the ritual mentally identify themselves with Siva and Sakti respectively.

While the body was widely underappreciated in many other religious faiths, the Kapalikas and Kalamukhas seem to have identified it as a means to a spiritual end.